Watching teeth grow

first_img Video of infant chimpanzees playing and frequently exposing their teeth, which was routinely captured with high-resolution still photography. The larger infant, Quiver (3.5 years of age in this video), was first seen with erupted first molars three months earlier.Most prior studies of tooth development in juvenile chimps relied on observing captive animals or studying skeletal remains of wild primates. Both methods came with challenges for researchers.Studies have shown that captive chimps grow dramatically faster — often reaching adult size by age 10 or 11, compared with 13 to 15 for wild chimps. That early development means the milestones researchers rely on as proxies for understanding early human species likely occur earlier than they normally would. Researchers studying skeletal remains of wild primates face another challenge. To properly understand those developmental landmarks, remains must be properly identified and aged, a notoriously difficult process for primates in dense tropical forests.“This is a key species for us, because they are our closest living relative, so we need to make sure we’re getting the chimps right,” Smith said.The researchers, studying the Kanyawara chimpanzee community in Kibale National Park in Uganda, teamed with wildlife photographers who snapped photos of the teeth of juvenile chimps whenever they opened their mouths.“They are very well-habituated animals,” Machanda said. “We’ve been following them for the past 25 years, so they are used to human observation. But we don’t touch them, we stay at least five meters back from them, and we will not interact with them unless it’s absolutely necessary. The only time we would physically touch them is if they had some sort of injury that is life-threatening.”The detailed photos, some of which captured the same individuals over months, allowed researchers to track precisely when molars erupted, and to closely correlate that information with behavior.“In the past, these broad models have taken aggregate data from publications on tooth development, and aggregate data from behavior observations in the field, but no one had ever actually collected data on both this aspect of skeletal development and behavior development,” Smith said. “This new approach allows us to say when a tooth erupted, how long it took, and what was going on with that individual at that time. In one case we had images of an individual at 2.5 years old, 2.6 years old, 2.7 years old, and 2.75 years old, and you can clearly see the progression of the tooth — that’s what makes this so powerful for us.”What the images revealed, Smith and Machanda said, came as a surprise.Where earlier studies suggested that juvenile primates were weaned shortly after the first molar eruption, this study showed that, in addition to eating more solid food, chimps continued to “suckle as much, if not more, than they had before,” Smith said. “They were showing adultlike feeding patterns while continuing to suckle, which was unexpected.”Researchers plan to follow up on the finding, Machanda said.“We’re now working on a project that’s focused on body size and growth, but we’re also planning future studies that will look at their energetic condition so we can understand what they’re trying to get from the mother by continuing to nurse,” she said. “What’s interesting, however, is that there can be conflict surrounding this where the juveniles are trying to get as much as possible from the mother and the mother is actually covering up her nipples and moving around. Sometimes they’ll even throw these temper tantrums that look exactly like human babies.”Said Smith: “I think there are two bottom lines here. One, I think, is a cautionary tale. The findings in this paper are going to challenge us to find other proxies for weaning and the spacing between offspring. But the other aspect that’s exciting is that we have some suggestion that we should start looking at how feeding behaviors develop in the wild.“No one has looked at how infants become more adultlike, both in their food choice and in the time they spend feeding,” she continued. “This actually appears to correlate fairly well with dental development, so, while this is a preliminary finding, we may have a new anatomical proxy for when juvenile primates begin eating like adults.”For more on the research, click here. For more than two decades, scientists have relied on studies linking tooth development in juvenile primates with their weaning as a rough proxy for understanding similar landmarks in the evolution of early humans. New research from Harvard, however, challenges that thinking by showing that tooth development and weaning aren’t as closely related as previously thought.A team of researchers led by three members of Harvard’s Department of Human Evolutionary Biology — professors Tanya Smith and Richard Wrangham and postdoctoral fellow Zarin Machanda — used high-resolution digital photographs of chimps in the wild to show that after the eruption of their first molar, many juvenile chimps continue to nurse as much as, if not more than, they had in the past. The study is described in a Jan. 28 paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.“When these earlier studies were published about 20 years ago, they found a very tight relationship between the eruption of the first molar and certain developmental milestones, particularly weaning,” Smith said. “A number of researchers have tried to extrapolate that relationship to the human fossil record, but it now appears that our closest living relative doesn’t fit that pattern. That suggests we should be more cautious if we want to infer what juvenile hominins were like.”Understanding how those early human species developed, Machanda said, can help shed light on one of the most unusual aspects of humanity — childhood.“One of the most important changes that occurred over human evolution is our extended period of juvenile development,” she said. “Compared to other primates, the apes have a very long childhood, and compared to other apes we have a very long childhood. By examining how chimps develop through their childhood, the hope is we can understand how and when that extended childhood began, and that will give us a greater understanding of the evolution of the human species.”Getting an inside view of chimpanzee childhood, however, is no easy task.Playing chimps expose their teethlast_img read more

New York Issues New Virus Mandate

first_imgPhoto: CDCALBANY – New York State’s Governor announced a new mandate Wednesday that requires open businesses to have 50 percent of its workforce work from home.The announcement by Governor Andrew Cuomo comes as the number of novel Coronavirus cases continue to grow in New York.The executive order exempts essential service industries, including shipping, media, warehousing, grocery and food production, pharmacies, healthcare providers, utilities, banks and related financial institutions, and other industries critical to the supply chain. “We are fighting a war against this pandemic and we know that two of the most effective ways to stop it is by reducing density and increasing our hospital capacity so our healthcare system is not overwhelmed,” Governor Cuomo said. “The deployment of the USNS Comfort to New York is an extraordinary but necessary step to help ensure our state has the capacity to handle an influx of patients with COVID-19 and continue our efforts to contain the virus. Partnering with the private sector to require nonessential employees to work from home will also go a long way toward bending the curve. My number one priority is protecting the public health so that a wave of new cases doesn’t crash our hospital system, and we will continue taking any action necessary to achieve that goal.”  The Governor confirmed 1,008 additional cases of novel coronavirus, bringing the statewide total to 2,382 confirmed cases in New York State.Meanwhile in Washington, D.C., President Donald Trump announced Wednesday that he will invoke a federal provision that allows the government to marshal the private sector in response to the coronavirus pandemic.Trump said he would sign the Defense Production Act “in case we need it” as the government bolsters resources for an expected surge in cases of the virus.Trump also said he will expand the nation’s testing capacity and deploy a Navy hospital ship to New York City, which is rapidly becoming the epicenter of a pandemic that has rattled the U.S. economy and rewritten the rules of American society. A second ship will be deployed to the West Coast.The president also said the Housing and Urban Development Department will suspend foreclosures and evictions through April as a growing number of Americans face losing jobs and missing rent and mortgage payments.This is a developing story and will be updated. The Associated Press contributed to this report. Share:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window),I guess you all are going to starve with this order….farmers will not be able to worklast_img read more

2 Georgia oranges?

first_imgBy Sharon OmahenUniversity of Georgia “The second year, it started looking bad, so I bought citrus-fruit spikes from Home Depot,” he said. “It perked up after that and produced so much fruit that the limbs broke.” Fonseca has seen citrus growing as far north as Cherokee County. “Trifoliate-oranges can be grown in parts of north Georgia,” he said. “But this is a thorny tree with fruit that’s so sour it’s inedible.” The first year after he planted the tangerine tree, Dowdy had to drive into Florida to buy citrus-fruit fertilizer. “The tangerine tree just took off and produced a lot of fruit in just a year,” he said. “I planted it by a huge oak tree, so I think it protects the tangerine from what little frost we do get.” “In addition to providing fruits, citrus plants make attractive ornamental specimens,” he said. “And they’re self-fruitful, so they don’t require cross-pollination.” “If you live in Georgia, you know firsthand,” Fonseca said. “It can be 75 degrees one day and below freezing the next.” “Nagami fruits are oblong to pear-shaped and have acid pulp,” Fonseca said. “The others are sweeter and rounder. Meiwa, which produces nearly round, sweet fruit, has become one of the most popular varieties for home planting.” “When I was a teenager, our family had a kumquat tree in our yard on Jekyll Island,” he said. “So my first citrus tree had to be a kumquat.” Hybrid plants called citranges have been crossed to grow better in Georgia conditions. “I know of two varieties that are growing in Telfair County and Thomasville,” Fonseca said. “They produce blooms, but the fruit is lemon-like.” These conditions can kill new growth and blooms that could become fruit and put added stress on the plant. Unfortunately, Dowdy’s kumquat plant died. His next citrus tree, a tangerine, has brought much more success. The kumquat is an attractive, shrub-like tree with orange-like fruits about an inch in diameter. The fruits can be eaten fresh, peel and all, or used to make jellies, marmalade and candies. The three commonly propagated varieties are Nagami, Marumi and Meiwa. In a state known for peaches, home gardeners can grow oranges and other citrus fruits if they live in coastal or extreme southern portions of Georgia.“Citrus grows best south of a Columbus-to-Macon-to-Augusta line,” said Marco Fonseca, a Cooperative Extension horticulturist with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.Fonseca strongly discourages gardeners from trying to grow citrus in middle to north Georgia or in home landscapes lower than U.S. Department of Agriculture zone 9. The severe winter temperatures in this region of the state are detrimental to growing citrus fruits. “Georgians along the coast have had success the past few years due to the mild winters,” he said. Citrus plants can be grown as individual plants or in groups as hedges, Fonseca said. They also make excellent container plants. Georgia’s unpredictable weather also lessens homeowners’ chances of successfully growing citrus. Dowdy and his neighbors often share their harvests. “On my street alone, we have grapefruits, oranges, kumquats and tangerines growing,” he said. Despite these limitations, more and more south and coastal Georgians are giving citrus a chance in their home gardens. David Dowdy of Brunswick, Ga., is one of them. Back in Brunswick, Dowdy is already planning his next citrus experiment: “My neighbors are now growing big grapefruits that I’d put up against Florida-grown fruit. Maybe now I’ll try to grow a pineapple.” Volume XXXIIINumber 1Page 2 It was a good choice. Kumquats are the most cold hardy of commonly grown acid citrus fruits. “Kumquats have delayed growth in the spring,” Fonseca said. “This helps them avoid late freeze damage.”last_img read more

SARA Bill paves way for hiring of new Director, CEO

first_img…PPP to oppose any politically affiliated appointmentsNow that the controversial State Assets Recovery Agency (SARA) Bill 2017 has passed in the National Assembly by the Government, which used its one-seat majority to enact the legislation, the hiring of a new Director, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and other officers for that agency could commence soon.However, in order for this to happen, President David Granger will first have to assent to the Bill and have it gazetted so that the Agency can be established and fully functional.Prior to the Bill being passed, Dr Clive Thomas was the Director of the State Assets Recovery Unit (SARU), which has now been renamed SARA and Aubrey Heath-Retemyer was the CEO. Other persons who were also working at SARU were Tacuma Ogunseye and Eric Phillips.But while the Government may have plans to rehire Thomas and the current batch of senior staff, the People’s Progressive Party (PPP) plans to vigorously oppose it.This is according to former Attorney General and Legal Affairs Minister Anil Nandlall, who told Guyana Times on Wednesday that his Party would not accept such reappointments.“We will oppose any person, who first of all is a politician or has displayed any form of political bias or affiliation,” Nandlall asserted.According to Nandlall, SARA by the terms of the legislation that will bring it into force has tremendous law enforcement powers and only persons who are trained in the areas of law enforcement and matters in relation to this Bill should be hired.He said, “This bill has no place for politicians. So, if any of the current people; they are tainted political people and none of them are qualified on that ground alone.”The PPP has already announced plans to mount legal challenges against the Bill, and Nandlall said one of the challenges which would be launched would target the appointment process.Former Attorney General and Legal Affairs Minister Anil Nandlall“Parliament has no role and function in appointing persons. No parliament in the world under the constitutional system like ours appoints people,” he explained.The former Minister continued: “If they persist in putting politically contaminated persons, then we will challenge on that ground too that those persons cannot bring to bear an impartial mind to an investigation having regard to their political dissidents and political hostility to a large section of the population…They cannot be expected objectively to function professionally.”Meanwhile, former President Bharrat Jagdeo, at a press conference on Tuesday, expressed his disappointment over the appointment of “political hacks” to the now vacant positions at SARA.SARU CEO Heath-Retemyer was accused of getting the position of CEO because of his close affiliation with Government.However, the Opposition Leader on Tuesday contended that his Party would seek to have persons with the requisite qualification function in the positions at SARA and would accept nothing less.last_img read more

Ray Ratto: Sharks rediscover themselves, but is it too late?

first_imgCLICK HERE if you are having a problem viewing the photos or video on a mobile deviceSAN JOSE — ​Well, that was easy, and predictable, and so very San Jose Sharks. They probably just waited one game too long to reprise their best selves.But they did, 5-2 winners over the Vegas Golden Knights in a game that was theirs in every way that Games 3 or 4 of this Western Conference first round series were not. They established control early, they maintained it through the few moments when the …last_img read more

SA ‘ready for any flu outbreak’

first_img11 March 2005South Africa’s Department of Health will hold discussions next week on ways of dealing with the possibility of an outbreak of a new, deadly strain of influenza.This follows a warning from the World Health Organisation that the H5N1 strain of the avian flu virus affecting some parts of the world may have the capacity to mutate and jump the species barrier, resulting in a disease with a high mortality rate among humans.Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is caused by viruses that infect birds and, less commonly, pigs.The meeting, that will include representatives from the National Institute of Communicable Diseases, will also review the implementation of the country’s flu epidemic prevention and management plan.The department said that a number of measures had already been put in place to enable the country to respond adequately to any flu outbreak.“We are working in tandem with the World Health Organisation and other countries in anticipation of a new cycle of the influenza”, the department said in a statement.The first priority, according to the WHO, is to reduce opportunities for human exposure to the largest reservoir of the H5N1 strain of the avian flu virus.This can be achieved through rapid detection of outbreaks among poultry, along with emergency control measures such as the destruction of all infected or exposed poultry stock and the proper disposal of carcasses.To date, no case of bird flu caused by the H5N1 strain has been reported in South Africa. The recent strain H5N2, detected in August 2004 at ostrich farms in the Eastern Cape, has since been successfully contained.“Despite the fact that there is no immediate danger to South Africa, health authorities have intensified their detection control measures”, said department spokesperson Sibani Mngadi.Mngadi said these included strengthening screening services at the country’s major points of entry, with particular emphasis on freight from high-risk areas such as Asia.The department was working closely with the Department of Agriculture to monitor developments, Mngadi said.Source: BuaNews Want to use this article in your publication or on your website?See: Using SAinfo materiallast_img read more

South Africa celebrates Africa Day

first_img22 May 2015Celebrate Africa Month by visiting the We Are Africa design and innovation exhibition at the KwaZulu-Natal Society of Arts (KZNSA), in Glenwood, Durban, which is on until 7 June.Africa Day is held on 25 May each year across the continent to mark the founding of the Organisation of African Unity – now known as the African Union – in 1963. It is a celebration of the diversity of and a call to unity for the continent.South Africa is celebrating Africa Day with a month-long celebration of what it means to be African. Africa Month sees a festival of ideas and cultural exchange with the aim of promoting and strengthening the creative economy, cultural diplomacy and social cohesion. The theme for Africa Month is: “We are Africa – opening the doors of learning and culture to promote peace and friendship from Cape to Cairo.”“We believe our programme will contribute to the attainment of the African Union’s vision 2063, which strives for an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa, driven by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in the global arena,” said Arts and Culture Minister Nathi Mthethwa.ExhibitionAs part of the festivities, his department, in partnership with Design Indaba, is presenting the We Are Africa themed exhibition. It brings together the work of 55 designers and innovators from 16 countries across the continent, including Senegal, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Malawi, Kenya, Cameroon, Uganda and South Africa.It provides a visual survey of emerging, established and unexpected talent in the fields of ceramics, fashion, jewellery, furniture, textiles, graphics, animation, architecture and industrial design. The work featured at the exhibition was selected and sourced by Design Indaba, through a call for entries put out to creative communities across the continent.“It is exciting to see the level of craftsmanship and innovation that African creatives are producing right now. In celebration of Africa Month, we hope the exhibition will continue this trajectory, inspiring others to contribute to our continent’s creative future,” said Kim Seeliger, the Design Indaba expo manager.Africa Month aims to increase appreciation and demand for arts and culture as well as goods and services, all in the hopes of stimulating competitive intra-Africa trade. Activities take place across the country and include music, literature, theatre, visual arts, film, fashion, food, seminars, exhibitions, lectures and panel discussions.AnthemMeanwhile, schools throughout the country will mark Africa Day by singing the AU anthem during assembly. The Department of Basic Education said a ministerial directive had been issued to all provincial education departments to instruct schools across the country to call special assemblies at 8am on 25 May.The AU, which comprises 53 member states, aims to promote greater unity and solidarity between African countries as well as accelerate the political and socio- economic integration of Africa. It is also at the forefront of the drive for peace, security and stability on the continent.Cultural congressIn Johannesburg, the fourth Pan-African Cultural Congress will start on Africa Day, running until 27 May, at the Sandton Convention Centre.The theme is “Unity in cultural diversity for Africa’s development”. The congress is being held by the AU Commission in collaboration with South Africa’s Department of Arts and Culture. It will be attended by cultural experts, policy makers, private sector and civil society organisations working in the arts and culture sector.The objective of the congress is to take stock of the challenges and record good practices on harnessing cultural diversity to enhance development. Specific objectives include:To facilitate the exchanges of ideas and experiences among arts and culture professionals, researchers, creators/producers of culture, decision/policy makers in the area of cultural diversity in Africa;To organise a thematic exhibition on African shared values and the spirit of pan-Africanism to showcase Africa’s creative and cultural potential with a view to boosting sustainable development; andTo provide pointers for the development of the first 10-year implementation plan for Agenda 2063 as it particularly pertains to Aspiration 5 and other related focus areas and flagship projects.SAinfo reporterlast_img read more

Texas makes self-driving cars legal again, no human driver required

first_imgBreak the Mold with Real-World Logistics AI and… Texas, like Finland, never had a law blocking self-driving cars from public roads, until Thursday when Gov. Greg Abbott signed a bill that set out the rules of the road.The re-legalization makes a few things clear for automakers and tech companies testing their autonomous vehicles in The Lone Star State. First, self-driving cars without a driver remain legal, as long as the car has a specific amount of insurance and is able to record video, according to a report by The Texas Tribune.See Also: Lyft and nuTonomy announce self-driving R&D partnershipThe manufacturer must accept liability for all accidents on the road, an agreement that both Waymo and Uber have both fought against in other states.Removing the need for a driver could push self-driving tests in Texas to Level 4 autonomy, which means fully autonomous except in certain environments, like heavy snows.Michigan is the only other state which allows self-driving cars to be tested without a driver inside to take control. California and Arizona are looking into legislation that would legalize driverless vehicles, but so far we only have two states.All of this state legalization may be null and void before too long, if a Republican House of Representatives bill passes through Congress. The bill would make the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) the national regulator for all things self-driving, and allow up to 100,000 cars a year to be exempt from the NHTSA’s rules. For Self-Driving Systems, Infrastructure and In… IT Trends of the Future That Are Worth Paying A… Related Posts center_img Tags:#Autonomous#driverless#Google#Internet of Things#IoT#Self-Driving#Texas#Waymo 5 Ways IoT can Help to Reduce Automatic Vehicle… David Currylast_img read more

5 Ways to Save Money for Your Side Hustle

first_imgIs AI Really a Threat to Traditional Jobs? Tags:#money tips#Trending Bart Schachter Related Posts Most people start side hustles because they want to be business owners and make some extra money — maybe even enough to eventually stop working their day job. But if they’re not careful, their side hustle could actually end up costing them money.U.S. News & World Report found that some people lose money on their side ventures. Their money was sunk in certifications, workspace rentals, maintenance fees, and self-employment taxes. Add in potential lost productivity from physical exhaustion or distractions, and you may be losing money at your day job, too, in terms of raises, bonuses, or promotions.That means it’s important to save money before and during the launch of your side hustle. Having a cushion makes it possible to plan ahead, make smart decisions regarding your business, and expand when you’re ready. It also guarantees you’ll take action based on what’s best for your business, not what’s best for your wallet in the moment.Here are a few ways to help your side hustle be profitable without draining your funds. Sign up for automatic savings. A lot of people open checking accounts and savings accounts simultaneously, with the goal of eventually moving money from checking into savings to create a safety net. With 57 percent of Americans having less than $1,000 in their savings accounts, it’s clear that doesn’t happen often in reality.To overcome your best intentions you never fulfill, open an account that has automatic savings set up. Chime has an Automatic Savings program that ensures users automatically transfer 10 percent of their paycheck to savings and have rounded-up amounts added to their savings every time they use their Chime card. In turn, you’ll be saving without doing anything additional, and the best savings are the ones you never see — because you’ve never tempted to tap them. Presell your goods and services with advance payment. Harvard Business Review reported that presales can actually boost long-term sales, so this is a great investment in your business’s end game. Best of all, presales ensure there’s a market for your product or service, meaning you won’t be wasting money by investing more in your side hustle.Presell what you’re working on, whether that’s a webinar, a line of T-shirts, or a translation service. One great way to do this is by offering some sort of sample, from an online portfolio of your work to a case study of another project you worked on. Ask people to not just sign up but commit to your offering by paying upfront. This allows you to anticipate and cover expenses — say, materials or the web designer who’s building your webinar landing page — before using any of your own money. Trade services. If you’re just starting your side hustle, you’re likely reliant upon others to help you get started, whether that’s a screenprinting press you rent time at or a photographer friend who helps you capture images for your website. While some people will simply help you out of the goodness of their heart or their excitement to see you succeed, some won’t — and it’s also not a great idea to be indebted to lots of people from the outset.Instead, work with vendors, distributors, or service providers to establish a trade relationship. If your service translates work into Spanish and your website builder is actually needing translation services for a few clients’ websites, you have a setting ripe for exchange. If your T-shirt business works with a screenprinter whose passion project is a summer camp, offer to design shirts for special camp events in exchange for screenprinting time. These are all ways to staunch the outflow of cash while setting your side hustle up for success. Use your blog to profit. In this day and age, you need a blog to propel your business to success — even if you don’t have a big following, sharing your knowledge and experiences with visitors to your site can build your credibility and push them to work with you. But you don’t have to see your blog as a drag on delivering your products or services — it can be its own source of income, too.By working with affiliate marketers, hosting ads on your blog, and writing sponsored posts or reviews, your blog can bring in money, too. And these can be helpful to visitors — say, a post about a brand of running shoes you highly recommend pairing with your running app — which helps make you “sticky” in clients’ minds. You can use additional income from sponsored posts or affiliate links to fuel your side hustle, making it a money saver rather than a distraction. Claim all your small business expenses. While there are some sticky tax details regarding side hustles — like estimated quarterly taxes — there also some benefits, like claiming expenses for your business. A lot of entrepreneurs miss the deductions hidden within the 74,000 pages of tax code, so educate yourself on what you can claim.If you use your home office, for example, you can claim not just the space, but also the utilities associated with it, such as internet. You can write off equipment you’ve purchased for your side hustle, from computers to cake decorating utensils; you can also write off expenses for travel, including airfare, mileage, or lodging. But you have to track it all in order to claim it. 1tap is a platform that helps entrepreneurs track receipts so they can claim every deduction owed come tax season; it even uses character recognition to eliminate data entry, saving hustlers both time and money.Side hustles are intended to make money, not bleed you dry. To avoid putting in more than you’re getting out, take advantage of these methods for saving your side hustle money so it can make a profit. If you can avoid worrying about money, you’ll be able to focus on building a strong business — and you may even find yourself no longer needing your day job.   Remote Working Culture: The Facts Business Owne… 5 Trendy Gift Ideas for the Secret Santa Exchan… Bart Schachter is an investor, operator, and tech affectionado, with a passion for business operations, team building, product design, finance, and deal making. Bart has been an entrepreneur, VC, corporate executive, and turn-around operator. He lives in San Francisco and all his view are his own. The Significant Role of Smartphones in Human Liveslast_img read more

PHOTOS: Wolmer’s Day

first_imgGovernor-General, His Excellency the Most Hon. Sir Patrick Allen (right), greets Chairman of the Wolmer’s Girls Sub-Committee, Karla Small-Dwyer (left), during a proclamation ceremony on Friday (May 17) at King’s House, officially designating May 21 as ‘Wolmer’s Day’. Observing are Chairman of the Wolmer’s Board of Management, Lincoln McIntyre (second left); and Chairman of the Wolmer’s Trust, Milton Samuda.last_img