Bayesian estimation of basal conditions on Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica, from surface data

first_imgThe determination of basal properties on ice streams from surface data is formulated as a Bayesian statistical inference problem. The theory is applied to a flowline on Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Estimates of bed topography and basal slipperiness are updated using measurements of surface topography and the horizontal and vertical components of the surface velocity. The surfacetopography is allowed to vary within measurement errors. We calculate the transient evolution of the surface until rates of surface elevation change are within limits given by measurements. For our final estimation of basal properties, modelled rates of elevation change are in full agreement with estimates of surface elevation changes. Results are discarded from a section of the flowline where the distribution of surface residuals is not consistent with error estimates. Apart from a general increasein basal slipperiness toward the grounding line, we find no evidence for any spatial variations in basal slipperiness. In particular, we find that short-scale variability (<10× ice thickness) in surface topography and surface velocities can be reproduced by the model by variations in basal topography only. Assuming steady-state conditions, an almost perfect agreement is found between modelled and measured surface geometry, suggesting that Rutford Ice Stream is currently close to a steady state.last_img read more

Cops: Lake Ronkonkoma Man Killed in One-Car Crash

first_imgSign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York A 52-year-old Lake Ronkonkoma man was killed in a one-car crash in his hometown on Friday, Suffolk County police said. The victim, John Grega, was driving his 1999 Chevrolet westbound on Oaklake Lane at approximately 5 p.m. when he apparently lost control of the vehicle and struck a tree, police said. Grega was taken to Stony Brook University Hospital, where he was pronounced dead, police said. Sixth Squad detectives are investigating the crash. The vehicle was impounded for a safety check, police said. Detectives ask anyone who may have witnessed the crash to call the Sixth Squad at 631-854-8652.last_img read more

Nelson’s Bruno Campese switches gears on coaching career, takes OHA job

first_imgIt didn’t take Nelson’s Bruno Campese long to find a new job in hockey.The Nelson Minor Hockey grad, who spent the past eight seasons at coach and GM of the Prince Albert Raiders of the Western Hockey League, has agreed to be head coach of the Okanagan Hockey Academy in Penticton.The announcement was recently made on the Okanagan Hockey School website.“We are very excited to have Bruno Campese join our organization,” said OHA vice-president Dixon Ward. “We have prided ourselves on the quality and expertise of our hockey staff and the addition of Bruno only increases that level. With his wealth of playing, coaching, and management experience at the Junior A and Major Junior level, Bruno will be able to provide our young athletes with the knowledge and experience that they will need to move to the next levels.”Prior to joining the Raiders, Campese spent three seasons as the head coach and director of hockey operations for the Penticton Vees (BCHL).From 2002-2004, he was an assistant coach with the Calgary Hitmen (WHL) after spending two seasons as the head coach with the Trail Smoke Eaters (BCHL) as well as a brief time as coach and GM of the Kootenay International Junior Hockey League’s Nelson Leafs.“I am excited to join Okanagan Hockey and be part of its operation in Penticton,” Campese, who also has a Master’s Degree in Education from Eastern Washington University, said on the OHA website.“The Okanagan Hockey program and facilities are second to none and I look forward working with an excellent staff.” During his playing days, Campese was selected in the 12th round, 249th overall, by the Boston Bruins at the 1982 NHL Draft.He spent two seasons as a goaltender with the Penticton Knights (BCHL) before playing one season with Northern Michigan University (NCAA).Campese also played two seasons in the Western Hockey League, ultimately winning the Memorial Cup in 1983 with the Portland Winterhawks.After his junior career, he spent 14 years playing professionally in Europe, including eight seasons with the Italian National Team, where he represented his country on multiple occasions at the World Championships and also at the 1994 Olympic Games in Lillehammer, Norway.During his time with the Raiders, Prince Albert had their struggles on the ice, making the playoffs in three of Campese’s eight seasons.However, Prince Albert did qualify for post-season action the past two seasons prior to the 2014-15 campaign.And this season the Raiders deserved better.After going 35-32-5 in 2013-14 and suffering a second-straight first-round exit, the Raiders, Campese and their fans looked forward to this season, knowing they would have two of the WHL’s premier players — defenceman Josh Morrissey and forward Leon Draisaitl — on their roster.But Draisaitl, the third-overall pick in the NHL’s 2014 draft, opened the season with the NHL’s Edmonton Oilers.And the Oilers didn’t want their draft pick to return to the Raiders, instead saying Draisaitl should play for the Kelowna Rockets.Instead of fighting a losing battle, Campese traded Morrissey and Draisaitl to the Rockets.Kelowna won the WHL championship before losing 2-1 to Oshawa in overtime in the Memorial Cup final Sunday.Campese decided to move on in hockey and take wife Maria and son Matthew to Penticton to work with the Okanagan Hockey Group.last_img read more

Jimmy vs. Jameis: Who won quarterback battle in Tampa Bay?

first_imgClick here if you’re unable to view the photo gallery on your mobile device. Unfortunately for both Jimmy Garoppolo and Jameis Winston, the at-times-maligned quarterbacks provided some ammunition for their critics in the season opener on Sunday.They were each partially responsible for the sloppiness that dominated much of the action at Raymond James Stadium as both Garoppolo and Winston each threw pick-sixes in the 49ers’ 31-17 victory.Garoppolo may have turned in an uneven performance — he …last_img read more

Now It’s Cool to Praise Neanderthals

first_img(Visited 443 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Long the brunt of jokes, Neanderthals are trending upward in respect. Scientists keep finding things to admire in our ‘archaic’ brethren.Neanderthals hunted in bands and speared prey up close ( Spear marks in fallow deer bones indicate to German paleoanthropologists that Neanderthal hunters could teach moderns a few things about bringing home the venison.Neanderthals were capable of sophisticated, collective hunting strategies, according to an analysis of prehistoric animal remains from Germany that contradicts the enduring image of these early humans as knuckle-dragging brutes….It was long thought that these evolutionary cousins—modern Europeans and Asians have about two percent of Neanderthal DNA—were not smart enough to compete, and lacked symbolic culture, a trait supposedly unique to modern humans.But recent finds have revealed a species with more intelligence and savoir faire than suspected.They buried their dead in ritual fashion, created tools, and painted animal frescos on cave walls at least 64,000 years ago, 20,000 years before homo [sic] sapiens arrived in Europe.The use of tontological verbs masks the identity of the people who were wrong about these ‘sophisticated’ humans. Who created the “enduring image” of dumb Neanderthals? Who “long thought” that they were not smart enough to compete? Who “suspected” they lacked intelligence? It was Darwinians, not young-earth creationists, who have always viewed Neanderthals as fully human descendants of Adam and Eve.In chapter 6 of his recent book Evolution’s Blunders Frauds and Forgeries, Jerry Bergman debunks the mistaken belief that facial angle was an indicator of intelligence.Why the Neanderthals may have been more sophisticated hunters than we thought – new study (The Conversation). Writer Annemieke Milks, a PhD candidate in anthropology, may represent a new generation willing to promote Neanderthals to the respect they have been denied by earlier evolutionists. Having been taught they were too stupid to use spears for hunting, she investigated the evidence that Neanderthals did indeed use spears in sophisticated ways, including long-distance throwing. She sneaks in some evolutionary assumptions here and there (belief in the long ages, and comparison to chimpanzee hunting with tools), but her conclusion is quite different than writers in the mid-20th century and earlier.The innovation of long-distance weaponry lies at the heart of questions around hunting strategies of different species of Homo. If Neanderthals were capable of powerful and accurate throws and some of their weapons were capable of flight, then differences between their hunting technologies compared with our own species may not be as great as is often suggested.The findings are compelling because they provide clear evidence that Neanderthals used spears as penetrating weapons to kill their prey, laying to rest hypotheses that early spears were ineffective. With mounting evidence that Neanderthals were clever, creative and capable, the results make a lot of sense. Given that our own species has not yet existed as long as the Neanderthals did, we should reconsider our tendency to underestimate them.Neanderthal brain organoids come to life (Science Magazine). A new technique is allowing scientists to begin glimpsing the Neanderthal brain, Jon Cohen reports. Researchers can grow organoids (clumps of tissue) from ancient DNA.Until now, researchers wanting to understand the Neanderthal brain and how it differed from our own had to study a void. The best insights into the neurology of our mysterious, extinct relatives came from analyzing the shape and volume of the spaces inside their fossilized skulls.But a recent marriage of three hot fields—ancient DNA, the genome editor CRISPR, and “organoids” built from stem cells—offers a provocative, if very preliminary, new option. At least two research teams are engineering stem cells to include Neanderthal genes and growing them into “minibrains” that reflect the influence of that ancient DNA.The unpublished work could be incapable of deriving any sound conclusions about Neanderthal intelligence, admittedly. In fact, the pioneer of Neanderthal DNA rescue has serious doubts:Svante Pääbo, director of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, expects the work to draw skepticism because it’s so difficult to figure out which genetic differences are “functionally relevant,” and the organoids only represent the early stage of brain development. “Organoids are far from being able to tell us how adult brains function,” says Pääbo, who led the team that deciphered the Neanderthal genome by rescuing DNA from their bones. His group has also started to make organoids with Neanderthal brain genes, but he stresses that the technique can introduce unintended mutations. “There are lots of control experiments to do, and then I’m quite hopeful we’ll overcome those doubts,” says Pääbo, who plans to compare Neanderthal brain organoids to those made from chimpanzee or modern human cells.Speculative claims in the article that certain growth patterns resemble those seen in autistic children cannot be taken seriously. One researcher commented, “we have no idea what it means,” which leaves open the possibility that Neanderthal brains were actually superior to ours. It’s hard to imagine a population of autistic humans thriving for millennia. As Milks said above, “Given that our own species has not yet existed as long as the Neanderthals did, we should reconsider our tendency to underestimate them.”Speaking (or Misspeaking) of Human EvolutionCranium of a four-million-year-old hominin shows similarities to that of modern humans  (Science Daily).  “The ‘virtual’ revisiting of a fossil described as ‘the oldest evidence of human evolution in South Africa’ shows surprising results,” this article says. It presents two challenges to evolutionary assumptions: (1) the skull of this creature classified in the genus Australopithecus has the same kind of bone structure that we have. (2) A skull of Paranthropus (an ape) has a different kind of bone. “This result is of particular interest, as it may suggest a different biology,” the authors say. The evidence appears too fragmentary to draw any conclusions about evolution.How did Homo sapiens evolve? (Science Magazine). Chris Stringer and Julia Galway-Witham opine again on the never-ending quest for “understanding” a subject that most human beings deny: that we came from apes. The correct inquiry should be, “Did humans evolve?” not “How did humans evolve?” Nobody outside the Darwin Party, however, is allowed to ask the right question. We see right from the first paragraph how evolutionary chutzpah runs into the brick wall of surprises, contradictions, and complexity.Over the past 30 years, understanding of Homo sapiens evolution has advanced greatly. Most research has supported the theory that modern humans had originated in Africa by about 200,000 years ago, but the latest findings reveal more complexity than anticipated. They confirm interbreeding between H. sapiens and other hominin species, provide evidence for H. sapiens in Morocco as early as 300,000 years ago, and reveal a seemingly incremental evolution of H. sapiens cranial shape. Although the cumulative evidence still suggests that all modern humans are descended from African H. sapiens populations that replaced local populations of archaic humans, models of modern human origins must now include substantial interactions with those populations before they went extinct. These recent findings illustrate why researchers must remain open to challenging the prevailing theories of modern human origins.Stringer and Galway-Witham plunge into complexities about dates, classification, migration patterns, and all the usual surprises that upset the paleoanthropology applecart every year. None of the “complexities” mentioned in the quote above were predicted by evolutionary anthropologists. Each one came as a total surprise. How can anyone trust their confidence about the “cumulative evidence” that they claim still “suggests” their main outline of a theory is correct?These are the same class of experts, perceptive readers will recall, who were telling us the Neanderthals were dumb brutes. At least we can agree with their last sentence: “With the growing influx of new analytical techniques and discoveries within and outside Africa, it is imperative that researchers continue to rigorously challenge our theories and that they remain aware of their limitations.“last_img read more

Open Africa Initiative shines at Davos 2018

first_imgThe Open Africa Initiative, a programme aimed at advancing the concept of intra-Africa economic and cultural integration – while boosting the continent’s young entrepreneurs – had a strong presence at this year’s World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.The Open Africa Initiative, which was founded by the Africa50 Global Shapers in May 2017, is making strides in its quest to advocate a better future for young Africans through increased intra-Africa trade. (Image: Open Africa Initiative)The programme, which was founded by Africa50 Global Shapers in 2017, sent four representatives to Davos to participate in panel discussions on African economic integration and the benefits it would bring to Africa’s up and coming entrepreneurs.Open Africa representatives included Ghanaian social entrepreneur Foster Akugri, the youngest participant in this year’s World Economic Forum (WEF) at the age of 23; Tanzanian edutainment entrepreneur Doreen Kessy; software developer Tinashe Mashungu from Zimbabwe; and South African water engineering prodigy Shamiso Kumbirai.More than 20 African countries have lent their support to Open Africa, which has a presence in 30 African cities. It engages with several trade bodies, as well as the African Union’s Continental Free Trade Area team and Agenda 2063.Participation at Davos this year was the culmination of a grassroots project that started in September 2017. An Open Africa bus journey taken by some of the continent’s best business minds travelled to 12 Africa countries, to research the economic trends of the continent and attempt to address challenges of cross-border trade, particularly for small goods traders and young entrepreneurs.The Davos participants shared insights from the journey, particularly on key impediments to the establishment of the African Continental Free Trade Area. A key objective was to advocate for African governments to adopt the free trade area and to create an African business collaboration platform.Traditionally, the WEF gathering, which features business, political and cultural participants from around the world, aims to develop a shared global narrative to improve the state of the world. This year was no different, and the programme, initiatives and projects of the meeting were focused on creating a “shared future in a fractured world”.Open Africa used the WEF platform to give a voice to African business and to shape the future of Africa by joining the global effort in co-design, co-create and collaborate.Source: Open Africa Initiative  Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.last_img read more

supermodel 20 inch Jet : Excellent Qaulity

first_imgLike them quite fast supply thank you ❤️.I am very seasoned when it will come to hair extensions, my previous set were cunning locks but i decided they are a bit dear, so after studying these evaluations i imagined i would give them ago, they arrived the day just after i purchased which is truly very good, the hair was comfortable and shiny, but regrettably bought slim in the direction of the finishes and appeared relatively skinny for 120g , as i have had a hundred and twenty g in the previous. I can’t wear the extensions on their own i have to use an outdated set in with them also, and to be straightforward i dont exactly have the thickest of hair. Id say the extensions are well worth about 27/30 pounds as i do not beleive they are truely 120g and are also slim toward the ends, also when you have extensions for a even though the hair starts to stick into streak like chunks, which these seem to be to do previously, sorry but i am seasoned so i do no what i am speaking about.supermodel 20 inch Jet Black (Col 1). Full Head Clip in Human Hair Extensions. High quality Remy Hair!. 120g WeightClip in hair extensions An 8 piece set of Clip in human hair extensions, made from 100% Remy A Grade Tangle Free Human Hair and the best quality hair clips. Hair clips are included and come pre-attached. We have now increased the weight of the hair extensions to 120g. This is a market leading product.A Stunning 8 piece set of premier quality extensions to clip in your hair: 1 x 9 inch wide piece with 3 clips 1 x 8 inch wide piece with 3 clips 1 x 7 inch wide piece with 3 clips 1 x 6 inch wide piece with 2 clips 1 x 4 inch wide piece with 2 clips 1 x 4 inch wide piece with 2 clips 1 x 2 inch wide piece with 1 clip 1 x 2 inch wide piece with 1 clip All the clips are attached and silicone coated for a strong holdIf you are looking to choose a new hair extension for your hair, just follow these simple instructions: Find the colour that matches your hair by browsing through the various products on offer at our site. Pictures on display are an exact match of the products themselves. If you have problems with matching the colours, we have a unique colour matching service at your disposal to assist you. Please email [email protected] most elegant and gorgeous looking clip in hair extensions are to be found at We specialize in clip in hair pieces to match your every need. We have a wide range of the best products on offer to give you long hair now.We only use 100% Remy A Grade Tangle Free Human Hair and the best quality hair clips!!! Coverage for a full headThis is so cozy carrying it and it is not hefty. I would advise people today to get from this dealer.Lovely definitely happy with it and quick supply will be purchasing a lot more may possibly be unique colorsto will propose to all my friends.Last yr i rated these one star. I am here to improve my critique to four stars. Getting minimal encounter i wasn’t extremely pleased with the value i payed and the problem of the merchandise, but with me these days realizing alot extra about them, they are double wefted and have alot of hair, most only promote 70g of hair but this is virtually double. I would acquire these again if they had been less expensive but i am going to buy thicker types. I do suggest folks buying these due to the fact there are eight thick parts and four of the parts are significant wefts, 2 are medium and 2 are modest. Contrary to other sellers i have purchased from’ this organization has more hair and extra wefts. Example: instead of a ten piece established that has 4 minor just one clips, this seller sells an eight piece that has more hair than the 10 piece sets. Do not be fooled on how many items people today promote, thank you.supermodel 20 inch Jet Black (Col 1). Full Head Clip in Human Hair Extensions. High quality Remy Hair!. 120g Weight : I bought a set of the 16 inch black extensions a few months ago and i have to say they are the best clip in extensions i have ever bought. They arrived within days of my order, i think i ordered on a tuesday and they arrived by the thursday. The minute i put them in an straightened my hair you couldn’t tell the difference between what was my hair and what was the extensions. People are shocked when i tell them my hair isn’t actually this length but it’s extensions. The amount of tracks you receive for the price is amazing. You can wear as many or as little as you want. I currently only need to wear two at a time to get the effect i need for everyday wear. For nights out i use 3-4 tracks, so i will always have some tracks left over if i ever need them. I will be ordering a set of the 18 inch ones soon as i want a longer length for my graduation ceremony next month. I honestly was expecting this merchandise to be weak quality thanks to buying off the internet. I am really shocked at how terrific it isi have really thin hair and was anticipating it to be thinner but it’s that thick, i really don’t need to have to use the full lotamazing.The hair is a bit slender but jst doubled it. The hair is a bit slender but jst doubled it up by stitching the other larger pieces with each other as i only have to have the one piece for bottom of hair and it is accomplished just the position for for me plus if u curl it , it seems to be thicker so for the price i couldn’t talk to for extra.Most effective ive bought from amazon. These are the best i’ve bought from amazon . They are essentially black like explained as a substitute of possessing blonde and pink through them like others i have acquired formerly from other sellers. They weighed 200 grams with the clips connected. Doubled above so not exceptionally slender like other individuals i’ve purchased , i have ordered an additional set so i can sew additional on to them even so this is simply because i experienced my hair lower and these are 20 inches if i experienced remaining my hair lengthier i wouldn’t have desired some doubling up. I choose these to the significant brand name title types i bought on the internet previous month as they were so bulky they hung in clumps and didn’t blend with my hair and also these price £80 significantly less . They truly feel pretty soft and glimpse purely natural.I have some artificial types and they just dont examine with these human types. They appear actually fairly if place in thoroughly. I am eighteen and i have jet black dyed straight hair that reaches about 5 inches below my shoulders and these support to give my hair some duration and make my hair glimpse fuller. I tease my hair and poof it up then use these to get the ‘scene’ search. Although the description said that the extensions were 18 inch i’ve lately experienced my hairdresser take them down to 16 inch and they do not glance as ‘witch’ like.Getting a hair qualified getting worn clip in extensions for 5 years i am generally a bit unwilling to order from new folks, as you by no means know what sort of hair it is you are buying, some is excellent qaulity and you can explain to, some is not so great. I requested this item (15”) as my hair is moderately limited and on my certain hair design way too extended appears to be far too unrealistic. It arrived in just 3 days and i opened with anticipation, at first i thought i’d just recieved hair (without having clips) as it was packaged considerably the very same way as it is when you just get hair on its personal. But there were being clips on them and the hair is truly doubled more than, (offering you thicker hair) as a lot of extensions are just singles. I am incredibly satisfied with this item and it is gorgeous qaulity hair. Quite joyful and would definitely buy yet again. Also, recieved 2 cards to give to good friends with low cost codes or to maintain for your following purchase. Pretty happy and will be ordering when i want to restock :)emma.Nevertheless you will will need to get two packs and double up. They are not for a full head.They have arrived early which is normally a moreover. I am so impressed with these extensions, of course they are marginally thinner at the finishes but what can you assume for £17. Astounding value for the hair you get feels incredible, a hundred% human hair. If you have thicker hair you may well require two packs but mine is slim so i can get absent with just one. Deffinately acquire them, there are quite a few terrible reviews for these extensions but they are actually awesome.Only position i will purchase my hair extensions from now. Brilliant quality for the selling price and they will not lose. Delivery is amazing was expecting to hold out a week for supply but only waited a working day.I bought this hair to attempt and help save myself funds acquiring them locally. On the other hand it came back again rather thin. But as my hair is thick, i desired an additional half heads well worth.Clip in human hair extensions. Most effective clip ins ever so at ease not like my other hair extensions can even rest in these onesthis is undoubtedly a have to by for any one hunting for great quality and fairly priced hair extensions.To the ideal hair extension i have bought alright for the rate, drop a whole lot and are incredibly thin two packs demanded to be honest.This hair is charming and delicate nevertheless i have good hair and just one pack is not more than enough hair the hair is not incredibly think at all but i assumed getting wonderful hair it would not require to be consider but i have experienced to set my aged exstentions in as nicely as these the quality of hair is superior but if u buy i would suggest two packs and sew the wefts collectively to make each and every weft thicker.Brilliant shipping and delivery arrived the following day. Actually good quality extensions actually thick & shiney defo be having these again 🙂 all my good friends commented on my hair sayin it appears excellent and asking in which i acquired the extensions.I ordered these for my daughter and she was extremely delighted with them, superior thickness ,fantastic colour match and properly packaged as well as a fast shipping and delivery also.Not 20 inch at all but what do you count on for the cost?. I requested two sets of these as i have truly thick hair and they seemed fab. Shipping and delivery was actually speedy as well think they arrived inside of two times of me buying. Will 100% get these yet again ❤️ them.I often purchase my hair extensions from ebay and i have hardly ever been that satisfied with them, they were often slender, and wispy didnt very last extended, and ive purchased alot of hair extensions. When i recieved these hair extenions ( which was incredibly excellent and pretty fast shipping and delivery ) i was abit fearful but as soon as i opened them you could tell they had been thick, my hairs quite limited so when i set them in they ended up so thick and in quite quite good condition you cant even see my true hair via them. I highly recommend acquiring from this person as i will be yet again, wonderful communictaion and really trustworthy.last_img read more

Only Action Moves You Forward

first_img Essential Reading! Get my first book: The Only Sale Guide You’ll Ever Need “The USA Today bestseller by the star sales speaker and author of The Sales Blog that reveals how all salespeople can attain huge sales success through strategies backed by extensive research and experience.” Buy Now “I am going to focus on prospecting” is not the same as “I am going to make 100 dials.”“I am going to work on nurturing my dream clients” is not the same as “I am going to communicate a message of value to 15 of my dream clients this week.”“I am going to be a better coach for my people,” is not the same as “I am going to spend 4 hours a week coaching my people using a non-directive approach.”Your intentions, while important, are not what produces results. The actions you take are what produce results. In fact, taking action without intellectualizing what you are doing will produce better results than getting these the other way around.It’s possible that you don’t know what you need to do to produce better results, but it isn’t likely. It’s more likely that you resist doing what you need to do because it is difficult, because you are afraid, or because you lack the discipline to do the things you know you need to do.Talking the talk is not the same as walking the walk. One of the reasons some people produce more and better results than others in the same period of time is that they do so much more. These people have built up a capacity for work that exceeds their peers, and they are simply outworking them.Some people may have more talent than you. Some may have resources that you don’t have. But the decision to do the work is the great leveler. The capacity to do hard work in great volumes equalizes. That capacity is available to any and all who decide to take relentless action in pursuit of what they want, even if some who have experienced adversity seem to have it in great quantities.You never need to ask for permission to work hard, and you never benefit from doing less than is really necessary. Action is the only thing that moves you forward, and massive action moves you further faster.last_img read more

Nissan sues India over outstanding dues; seeks over $770 million

first_imgJapanese automaker Nissan Motor has begun international arbitration against India to seek more than $770 million in a dispute over unpaid state incentives, according to a person familiar with the matter and documents reviewed by Reuters.In a legal notice sent to Prime Minister Narendra Modi last year, Nissan sought payment of incentives due from the Tamil Nadu government as part of a 2008 agreement to set up a car manufacturing plant in the southern state.According to the notice, Nissan said repeated requests to state officials for the payment, due in 2015, were overlooked and even a plea by the company’s chairman, Carlos Ghosn, to Modi in March of last year seeking federal assistance did not yield any results.The notice, sent by Nissan’s lawyers in July 2016, was followed by more than a dozen meetings between federal and state officials and Nissan executives, said the person familiar with the matter, who did not want to be named as it is not public.The federal officials, from several ministries, assured Nissan the payment would be made, and it should not bring a legal case. But, in August, Nissan gave India an ultimatum to appoint an arbitrator, the person said, adding the first arbitration hearing will be in mid-December.A Nissan spokesman said the company was “committed to working with the government of India toward a resolution,” but did not elaborate.A senior Tamil Nadu state official said the government hoped to resolve the dispute without having to go to international arbitration. “There is no discrepancy with regard to the amount due, and we are trying hard to resolve the issue,” the official told Reuters.advertisementModi’s office did not respond to an email seeking comment.The case, brought against India for alleged violations of its Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement with Japan, is the latest in a string of international arbitration proceedings against the country by investors concerned about issues ranging from retrospective taxation to payments disputes.There are over 20 cases pending against India, among the highest against any single nation.The dispute between Nissan and the Tamil Nadu government also shows the challenges companies face in India and how local disputes could undermine the Modi government’s efforts to attract foreign investment and create new jobs.GROWING LOSSESSeveral automakers, including Ford and Hyundai Motor, have set up production hubs in Tamil Nadu, giving state capital Chennai the nickname; the ‘Detroit of South Asia’.In 2008, when Nissan and its global alliance partner, French carmaker Renault, agreed to invest in setting up a car plant in Chennai, the state government promised several incentives including some tax refunds.Over seven years, Nissan and Renault invested 61 billion rupees ($946 million) and set up a plant with annual production capacity of 480,000 vehicles, which entitled them to receive the incentives in 2015, according to the legal notice.In that notice, Nissan’s lawyers said the state government’s decision to not pay was “arbitrary”, and Nissan has “incurred significant and increasing losses”.Nissan did not specify the business impact in the 8-page notice, but said in 2008 that state incentives were critical to the project’s viability and sustainability.The carmaker, in its notice, is claiming 29 billion rupees in unpaid incentives and 21 billion rupees in damages, plus interest and other costs.Nissan, which has less than a 2 percent share of India’s passenger car market, builds and sells the Micra hatchback, Sunny sedan and Terrano sport-utility vehicle. It also sells low-cost cars under its Datsun brand.The company spokesman said Nissan has created more than 40,000 direct and indirect jobs in India.last_img read more